The theoretical case in which 51% of a blockchain's consensus mechanism is controlled by a single bad actor, allowing them to double spend.
The smallest unit of Bitcoin, 0.00000001 BTC,
Any other cryptocurrency besides Bitcoin.
Your name is completely obscured. A case where no one could figure out your identity, no matter what.
Short for Application Specific Integrated Circuit. These powerful computers are built for the purpose of mining any cryptocurrency based on a proof of work system, such as Bitcoin. Because they are specifically designed for mining, they are far more efficient than traditional CPU and GPU mining rigs.
Something of value, often held as a store of value or wealth.
In accord with previous protocols. In the case of cryptocurrencies, a software update that is backwards compatible will not mess things up by creating a hard fork.
A general trend that prices are falling in a market. A market can be bearish, or a person can be bearish if they feel that prices are due to fall.
The tiniest amount of computer code, defined as a 1 or a 0.
Cryptocurrency awarded to a miner or forger if they are the first one to add a new block to the existing chain. The block reward is new crypto that is created as a product of the block being mined.
Creating a new set of public and private keys and memorizing them. This creates a system where the only place your cryptocurrency is stored is in your mind.
A product of speculative investing patterns where the price of an asset will rise sharply only to "burst" as though a bubble and then fall sharply.
A trend that prices in a market are rising. A market itself can be bullish or a person can be bullish if they feel prices are due to rise.
Prominent member of crypto-space and creator of one of the first altcoins, Litecoin.
A program that relies on a server to feed it information or complete its task. For example, web browsers are clients in that they require information from a web server.
A place to store public and private keys that resides offline. Since keys are not connected to the Internet in any way, they are less succeptible to being hacked.
Something pledged when taking on a loan which, if the loan is not repayed, will be sold in order to pay back the loan.
Agreement; the necessity for miners to agree on the validity of a blockchain. There are multiple methods by which miners can agree on validity, the most popular of which is called proof of work.
A blockchain where the consensus process is controlled by a pre-selected set of nodes. Popular among private organizations but not as useful for digital currencies
The process of receiving funding from a large number of people. Instead of having a few investors give a lot of money each, companies look for many investors to put in small amounts.
The broadest term for a blockchain-based store of value. Cryptocurrencies, tokens, and ICO's could all be considered under the umbrella of cryptoassets.
A digital store of value that is transferred through a blockchain.
The process of making something secret or hidden.
A cryptoasset that is redeemable for something or usable in some way.
Unnecessarily fancy word for the Internet.
A group of digital pioneers first active in the 1980's who sought to defend digital privacy through various cryptographic measures. First spoke of a need for digital currency.
Short for Decentralized, Autonomous Organization. Large mechanisms that can self manage and perform various functions, often including smart contracts as a component. Often built on blockchain platforms such as Ethereum.
Descriptive of something lacking a central authority. Power is distributed to many democratic points as opposed to one ruling point.
Decentralized app (dApp)
An application that has back-end code running on a decentralized network instead of a central server.
A piece of software that can be downloaded and used to store public and private keys on one's personal computer.
Any intangible asset that resides on the Internet. Ex. Bitcoin.
A specific series of bits confirming that a transaction is valid and should be accepted by the network.
Something split into many pieces and separated out. Mining power in blockchain systems is said to be distributed.
A computer science issue preventing the existence of digital currency where someone would be able to spend the same unit of currency twice. This problem was first popularly solved by Bitcoin.
Research conducted before making any kind of investment. Even if someone recommends an investment to you, smart investors will always conduct independent research.
Do Your Own Research. A popular hashtag on twitter where, even when recommending a crypto-investment, people ask others to do their own research first. Akin to saying, "If you invest and lose money, I am not liable for recommending the investment."
A currency issued by a government, often a reference to paper money. Examples include the US Dollar, the Euro, the Yen, etc.
An asset is classified as a security if there is an expectation that the asset will increase in value due to work performed by others.
The process of adding blocks (and validating transactions) in a proof of stake consensus system.
Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt. Negative emotions related to anxiety in a marketplace.
A hard fork is a protocol change that results in an entirely new blockchain with an entirely new currency. Before the change, all transactions are valid, and after the fork two blockchains will exist with two currencies. Example: Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash hard fork.
A mathematical formula that is designed to take inputs, "hash" them, and return outputs that appear to be completely unrelated to the inputs. The outputs appear to be random.
Misspelling of the word hold. Meme in crypto-space that has turned into a battle cry for refusing to sell even during dips in the market.
A wallet that is connected to the Internet in some capacity and thus susceptible to hacks.
Initial Coin Offering. A new way of crowdfunding where a company creates a token and sells it. People buy tokens in the hopes that they will rise in value as the company does. Many think ICO's might be classified as securities in the near future.
Unable to be changed retroactively. Past blocks in the blockchain are immutable.
Internet of Things
Connection of everyday devices (such as a pen, car, or stove, etc.) to the Internet such that they can send and receive data.
Something used to record transactions, an itemized list of transactions.
A measure of how much money is borrowed during margin trading. A ratio of how much money is borrowed compared with how much money is put down as collateral. 1:1 leverage means not borrowing anything. 1:100 leverage means borrowing 100 times more than is offered as collateral.
Most wallets; accesses only the most recent information on the blockchain that's relevant to your particular account at the time, rather than storing the entirety of the massive file that is the blockchain.
The ease and quickness with which an asset can be bought and sold at the actual market price. Higher market volume often denotes higher liquidity. The most liquid asset is money itself and an example of an illiquid asset might be real estate.
When trading with borrowed money, an exchange can margin call you and sell off collateral if your position reaches a critical point where it must be closed. Margin called = you have to pay up.
To trade using a loan. The act of borrowing money in order to make an investment.
The circulating number of units of an asset multiplied by the current market price. An indicator of the size of a market.
A network overlaying a traditional consensus mechanism that allows for additional features. First shown in the Dash system.
Medium of exchange
An instrument used to conduct trade. Currencies are mediums of exchange because they represent consistent value.
Someone who uses their computing power to verify transactions on a blockchain in return for cryptocurrency.
The process of performing computational work in order to verify transactions and add blocks to the blockchain in proof of work consensus models. Miners are paid with fees and block rewards.
A investment term denoting that something is going to offer investors a massive return on their investment. Something that is mooning is rapidly rising in price, often making investors wealthy.
A wallet that is only accessible using more than one private key. More safe from hacking than a single signature wallet.
Famous cypherpunk and creator of Bit Gold, a precursor to Bitcoin. Often credited with creating the term "smart contract."
Any computer that is connected to a blockchain network. Full nodes can verify the validity of transactions.
A special number added to the end of a block that, when hashed with the entire block as well as the hash of the previous block, produces a new hash with a certain number of leading zeroes. When miners are creating a block, they are racing to find the nonce.
The process of creating a new key pair, transferring crypto-assets to the associated public address, and writing the public and private keys on a piece of paper. The keys are not stored anywhere online.
Peer to peer
A system where individuals can interact directly with each other without having to go through a third party as a mediator.
A random number belonging to you and only you, used to digitally sign cryptocurrency transfers. Private keys give you access to your funds and should be kept secret.
Proof of stake
A method of determining consensus that determines who is likely to mine the next block by weighting the amount of wealth a person has "staked," or locked away in a special kind of wallet.
Proof of work
The original method of determining consensus. This method gives the right to add a new block to the chain to the computer that is lucky enough to find a particular number, that when fed into a hashing algorithm produces a specific number of leading zeroes.
A set of rules, applicable across different operating systems and coding languages.
Not fully anonymous, only sort of anonymous. If something is only psuedo-anonymous, someone might be able to figure out your identity after all.
A fake name or identifier. In a pseudonymous system, if a connection is made between the pseudonym and the person it corresponds to its power to hide identity is compromised.
Given out to others, allowing them to send you funds. The public address is the public key, with a few adjustments made. This makes it two steps removed from your private key.
One step removed from the private key. Allows your digital signatures to be verified. Part of the key pair necessary for the function of public key cryptography.
Pump and Dump
A scheme in a marketplace where investors buy up an asset so the price rises so that they can immediately sell the asset at the new, higher price and take a profit.
"He's the hero Gotham deserves, but not the one it needs right now. So, we'll hunt him, because he can take it. Because he's not our hero. He's a silent guardian. A watchful protector. A Dark Knight." - Jim Gordon, The Dark Knight
Also, the anonymous figure(s) who invented Bitcoin.
The process of expanding a network to properly accommodate an increase in users.
A hashing algorithm, analogous to SHA-256, that helps to remove the advantage ASIC machines have over traditional CPUs and GPUs.
A string of words associated via an encrypted algorithm to a private key, allowing the retrieval of said key if the words are known.
Secure Hashing Algorithm, 256 bit. Utilized by the entire internet (and Bitcoin!) to maintain security.
Talking up a product because you are covertly paid to do so.
A digital agreement that has the power to auto-execute and the ability to transfer funds between parties. The combination of a contract and an escrow account in one piece of code that runs on a blockchain. Digitally signed by all parties involved.
A protocol change that is backwards compatible, allowing unupgraded nodes to interact with upgraded ones normally. A soft fork does not necessitate the creation of an entirely new cryptoasset.
The coding language of the Ethereum blockchain.
Store of value
One of the three functions of currency. Refers to the ability of a currency to be saved, stored, and exchanged for goods or services at a later time.
Teeny, tiny, super cute pig. Never gets bigger than piglet size.
The use of market and price information to make predictions about future price action of an asset.
A decentralized venture fund, built on Ethereum. A major hack of the DAO early on forced Vitalik Buterin to fork Ethereum to return stolen funds.
Abbreviation for an asset. For example, Bitcoin's ticker is BTC.
A sequence confirming the exact time at which an event occured. Used for recordkeeping and auditing purposes.
When an asset is split into many small pieces and distributed using a blockchain.
Capital invested in a project in which there is a substantial element of risk, typically a new or expanding business.
A virtual machine is able to run an operating system without the machinery of a host. A method for running a decentralized network where computing power needed to run an operating system is distributed among many machines, creating a computer that only exists virtually, or a virtual machine.
Founder of Ethereum, blockchain developer, Thiel Fellowship recipient. Read: smart as heck dude, who revolutionized the crypto space.
Software that allows a user to interface with the blockchain.
Cypherpunk, inventor of b-money.
A very wealthy investor.
A summary of the goals, timelines, policies and niche of a company. Includes the value proposition.